Fact Check

Does This Photograph Show Women Wearing 'Flu Masks'?

Masks were commonly worn during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic, but this photograph doesn't show them.

Published Apr 9, 2020

 (Twitter, screen capture)
Image Via Twitter, screen capture
A photograph shows two women wearing flu masks during the 1918 pandemic.

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In April 2020, as the United States adjusted to new social-distancing protocols to prevent the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus disease, the above-displayed photograph started circulating on social media that supposedly showed two women wearing masks in 1919 during the "Spanish flu" pandemic.

This is a genuine photograph. However, it was not taken in 1919 during the flu pandemic, and these masks were being worn for fashion, not medical, purposes.

This image is available via Alamy and presented with the title "Ladies' fashion from 1913." That image is also attached to a description in German that explains the trend imitated traditional veils worn in Turkey.

Here's the original caption (translated via Google):

Eine Neue Schleiermode

Durch den Balkankrieg hat sich eine neue, einzigartige Mode herausgebildet: die Damen tragen neuerdings den seit Jahrhunderten in der Turkei ublichen Nasenchleier

A New Veil fashion

A new, peculiar fashion has emerged from the Balkan War: women have recently been wearing the nose veil that has been used in Turkey for centuries.

Although this particular photograph shows two fashionable women, people were encouraged to wear masks during the "Spanish flu" pandemic. Here's a 1918 newspaper clipping from The Oakland Tribune announcing that police officers would start patrolling the streets to make sure people were wearing "flu masks":

The 1918 H1N1 pandemic infected an estimated 500 million people (about a third of the world's total population) and resulted in an estimated 50 million deaths, 675,000 of which occurred in the United States. Mandating people wear protective masks was just one method cities in the United States used to fight the disease.

According to CNN, the United States "led the world in mask wearing" during that pandemic. In some areas of the country, such as San Francisco, citizens were required to wear masks in public.

CNN writes:

In October 1918, as San Francisco received the pandemic's second wave, hospitals began reporting a rise in the number of infected patients.

On October 24, 1918, the city's elected legislative body, the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco, realizing that drastic action needed to be taken with over 4,000 cases recorded, unanimously passed the Influenza Mask Ordinance.

The wearing of face masks in public became mandatory on US soil for the first time.

A number of images showing this unusual time in American history can be found on Getty Images. Here are a few photographs showing police officers, sanitation workers, and everyday citizens wearing masks in an effort to prevent the spread of disease during the 1918 pandemic:

Inspecting Chicago street cleaners for 'Spanish influenza'. Officials are wearing gauze masks. (Getty Images)

An American policeman wearing a 'Flu Mask' to protect himself from the outbreak of 'Spanish flu' following World War I. (Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)


The Oakland Tribune.   "Flu Cops Are Given Orders."     26 October 1918.

Kim, Noah.   "How the 1918 Pandemic Frayed Social Bonds."     The Atlantic.   31 March 2020.

French, Paul.   "In the 1918 Flu Pandemic, Not Wearing a Mask Was Illegal in Some Parts of America. What Changed?"     CNN.   4 April 2020.

Dan Evon is a former writer for Snopes.

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