Claim: Harpo Marx changed his given name from Adolph to Arthur in order to avoid an association with Adolf Hitler.
Origins: An age-old technique for mobilizing a populace to fight a war is to so thoroughly demonize the enemy that the conflict becomes seen by the public as a moral battle rather than a political one. This technique was used to maximum effect in America during World
attributed, and suddenly everything Germanic became anathema. German-Americans sought to avoid being branded as disloyalists, traitors, or spies by declaring themselves to be Dutch or anglicizing their names, and common items with German names were retitled: sauerkraut became “victory cabbage,” hamburgers turned into “liberty sandwiches,” and “hamburger steak” was henceforth known as “Salisbury steak.” And a young comic named Julius Marx, who came from a German family and who was touring America in a vaudeville show with his three brothers, altered the persona of his stage character from German to Yiddish and finally to American. Julius would later became nationally famous as Groucho, one of the celebrated Marx Brothers.
The renaming frenzy didn’t carry over to
Although Harpo was indeed born under the name of Adolph Marx, he had quickly been nicknamed “Ahdie,” a name he much preferred to
Last updated: 28 October 2014
Kanfer, Stefan. Groucho: The Life and Times of Julius Henry Marx. New York: Knopf, 1999. ISBN 0-375-40218-7. Louvish, Simon. Monkey Business: The Lives and Legends of the Marx Brothers. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. ISBN 0-312-25292-7. Marx, Harpo. Harpo Speaks! New York: Limelight Editions, 1988. ISBN: 0-879-10036-2.
A Word to Our Loyal Readers
Support Snopes and make a difference for readers everywhere.
- David Mikkelson
- Doreen Marchionni
- David Emery
- Bond Huberman
- Jordan Liles
- Alex Kasprak
- Dan Evon
- Dan MacGuill
- Bethania Palma
- Liz Donaldson
- Vinny Green
- Ryan Miller
- Chris Reilly
- Chad Ort
- Elyssa Young
Most Snopes assignments begin when readers ask us, “Is this true?” Those tips launch our fact-checkers on sprints across a vast range of political, scientific, legal, historical, and visual information. We investigate as thoroughly and quickly as possible and relay what we learn. Then another question arrives, and the race starts again.
We do this work every day at no cost to you, but it is far from free to produce, and we cannot afford to slow down. To ensure Snopes endures — and grows to serve more readers — we need a different kind of tip: We need your financial support.
Support Snopes so we continue to pursue the facts — for you and anyone searching for answers.