Anti-Muslim fervor has been bubbling for years in the United States and Europe, periodically stoked by elected officials and media outlets. Most of these tropes — usually involving the “outraged Muslims demand special treatment” trope — are either partially or wholly false; but they are repeated ad infinitum anyway.

Here are some of our top stories:

1. A video of a teenager beating up a person on crutches was shared by President Donald Trump along with the claim that the antagonist is a “Muslim migrant.”

2. A video showing a religious procession in Bradford, England, was misrepresented as a protest by those with an anti-Muslim agenda.

3. A video showing a controversial Russian teacher smacking one of his students was recirculated with a claim that it shows a Muslim man slapping a Christian woman.

4. A misrepresented video claimed that Muslims “attacked” a Christmas tree in a Western mall, but the clip documents a post-Christmas event in Cairo.

5. A series of articles try fervently to blame immigrants and Muslims for the devastating fires — falsely, misleadingly, and without evidence.

6. A hyperpartisan web site offered up a patchwork of half-truths and hyperbole to sow fear and hatred of refugees.

7. A photograph of a sign bearing an ominous threat from the group “Advancement of Islamic Agenda for America” is a digital fabrication.

8. No, Muslims didn’t recently decide to reschedule their celebration of the birth of the Prophet Mohammed in order to disrupt Christmas.

9. A “satirical” web site regurgitated Islamophobic stereotypes in a post following Ravi Bhalla’s November 2017 election.

10. An unreliable web site claimed that then-President Barack Obama declared Islam is the U.S.’s “official religion.”

11. White House adviser Valerie Jarrett did not say she seeks “to help change America to be a more Islamic country.”

12. Fake news reports that Dearborn, Michigan, has become the first U.S. city to implement Sharia law.

13. Photographs show sign-bearing Muslim protesters at a demonstration in London, but not a “Religion of Peace” demonstration.

14. U.S. General John J. Pershing did not effectively discourage Muslim terrorists in the Philippines by killing them and burying their bodies along with those of pigs.

15. Misleading articles claimed Burger King “bowed to Sharia law” by banning bacon, and urged Americans to boycott the chain.

16. A questionable and clickbait web site completely misrepresented objections to a French mayor’s purported push against so-called “alternative menus.”

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