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Home --> Holidays --> Thanksgiving --> Black Friday

Black Friday

Claim:   The day after Thanksgiving is the biggest shopping day of the year in the U.S.

Status:   False.

Origins:   The day after Thanksgiving is the day millions of Americans, enjoying a rare Friday off (and a dearth of football games on television), head for the malls to kick off the Christmas shopping season. "Black Friday" (supposedly so named because it's the day when retailers turn the corner and see their income statements move out of the red and into the black, but originally the phrase was a derisive term applied by police and retail workers to the day's plethora of traffic jams and badly-behaved customers) is regularly cited as "the busiest shopping day of the year." But although Black Friday may be the day the greatest number of holiday shoppers traipse through malls, it isn't necessarily the biggest day of the year in terms of dollars spent:
Popular
belief has it that the Friday after Thanksgiving is the busiest shopping day of the year.

These days many shoppers buy with the holidays in mind all year long. Decorations go up around Halloween, and some Santa Clauses arrive at malls before Thanksgiving. Some shoppers get an early start Thursday at a limited number of stores like Kmart and Wal-Mart Super Centers, which are open on the holiday. To be sure, there are still intense crowds on the day after Thanksgiving — led by the "doorbusters" who show up at dawn for early-bird sales.

"It's one of the busiest days in terms of traffic but not in sales," said Pam Rucker, spokeswoman for the National Retail Federation. "But the mystique is still there."1

"People just want to get out and do something on that day," said Jay McIntosh, director of U.S. Retail and Consumer Products for accounting giant Ernst & Young. "They do because of all of the incentives to shop, but many aren't buying."2
The consistent holiday shopping trend is that sales figures spike on the day after Thanksgiving, drop sharply immediately afterwards, then steadily increase throughout December, peaking on the four days comprising the two weekends before Christmas. The result is that Black Friday nearly always ends up ranking below the last Saturday before Christmas (or December 23, if Christmas Day falls on a weekend), and in recent years it has ranked between fourth and eighth on charts of the year's busiest shopping days.

According to statistics published by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC), the top shopping days for the years 1993 through 2002 were:
  • 2002: Saturday, Dec. 21
  • 2001: Saturday, Dec. 22
  • 2000: Saturday, Dec. 23
  • 1999: Saturday, Dec. 18
  • 1998: Saturday, Dec. 19
  • 1997: Saturday, Dec. 20
  • 1996: Saturday, Dec. 21
  • 1995: Saturday, Dec. 23
  • 1994: Friday, Dec. 23
  • 1993: Thursday, Dec. 23
For those years, "Black Friday" held the following positions in the ICSC's rankings of year's busiest shopping days:
  • 2002: #4
  • 2001: #6
  • 2000: #5
  • 1999: #8
  • 1998: #8
  • 1997: #7
  • 1996: #5
  • 1995: #7
  • 1994: #8
  • 1993: #8
Holiday shopping patterns may change in years to come due to the increasing prevalence of shoppers' using on-line sales outlets for their holiday purchases. (Indeed, online retailers have already coined the term "Cyber Monday" to describe the first weekday after the Thanksgiving holiday weekend, a day on which their sales supposedly spike as shoppers pile onto the Internet to buy online whatever they couldn't or didn't get at the mall the previous weekend.) For now, however, Wal-Mart still remains the top holiday-gift destination for U.S. shoppers.

Additional information:
    Christmas Shopping Facts and Figures Christmas Shopping Facts and Figures
Last updated:   20 November 2006

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  Sources Sources:
    Albright, Mark.   "And Once Inside, They're Buying."
    St. Petersburg Times.   27 November 1999   (p. A1).

    1.   DeGross, Renee.   "Ready, Set, Start Holiday Shopping."
    The Atlanta Journal and Constitution.   24 November 2000   (p. E1).

    2.   Gilligan. Gregory J.   "'Black Friday' Myth Falls Short."
    Richmond Times-Dispatch.   28 November 2003.

    Groves, Martha.   "Neither Rain Now Snow Stop Yule Shoppers."
    Los Angeles Times.   30 November 1985   (p. 1).

    Hanchett, Doug.   "Day After Thanksgiving No Longer Tops for Shops."
    The Boston Herald.   26 November 2000   (p. 8).

    Hershey Jr., Robert.   "Many Shoppers Won't Do Today What They Can Do on Dec. 24."
    The New York Times.   26 November 2000   (Money/Business; p. 12).

    Sendejas, Jesse.   "Retailers: Shop Early to Avoid Rush."
    The Houston Chronicle.   13 December 2001   (p. 2).

    CNNMoney.com.   "After Black Friday Comes Cyber Monday."
    28 November 2005.